Alzheimer’s Disease Types, Causes, and Diagnostic Tests

2013 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. (2017). at

Del Sole, A. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias. Functional Neurology (2016). doi:10.11138/fneur/2016.31.4.205

Kitamura, Y. et al. Plasma protein profiling for potential biomarkers in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurological Research 39, 231-238 (2017).

Masters, C. et al. Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 15056 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrdp.2015.56

McKhann, G. et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group* under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 34, 939-939 (1984).

McKhann, G. et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS–ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 77, 333-333 (2011).

Piaceri, I. Genetics of familial and sporadic Alzheimer s disease. Frontiers in Bioscience E5, 167-177 (2013).

Zhang, J. et al. An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies: Diabetes and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 124, 41-47 (2017).


Biessels, G. & Reagan, L. Hippocampal insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16, 660-671 (2015).

Chami, B., A. J. Steel, S. M. De La Monte, and Greg T. Sutherland. “The Rise and Fall of Insulin Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Metabolic Brain Disease 31, no. 3 (June 1, 2016): 497–515. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9806-1.

De Felice, F. et al. Protection of synapses against Alzheimer’s-linked toxins: Insulin signaling prevents the pathogenic binding of Aβ oligomers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 1971-1976 (2009).

Hoyer, S. & Nitsch, R. Cerebral excess release of neurotransmitter amino acids subsequent to reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer type. Journal of Neural Transmission 75, 227-232 (1989).

Kaminari, A., Giannakas, N., Tzinia, A. & Tsilibary, E. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) rescues insulin-mediated impairment in the 5XFAD model of Alzheimer’s disease. Scientific Reports 7, (2017).

Luo, Jinghui, Sebastian K. T. S. Wärmländer, Astrid Gräslund, and Jan Pieter Abrahams. “Reciprocal Molecular Interactions between the Aβ Peptide Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease and Insulin Linked to Diabetes Mellitus Type II.” ACS Chemical Neuroscience, January 19, 2016. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00325.

Steen, E. et al. Impaired insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression and signaling mechanisms in Alzheimer’s disease – is this type 3 diabetes?. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 7, 63-80 (2005).

Takeda, Shuko, Naoyuki Sato, Hiromi Rakugi, and Ryuichi Morishita. “Molecular Mechanisms Linking Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer Disease: Beta-Amyloid Peptide, Insulin Signaling, and Neuronal Function” 7, no. 6 (June 1, 2011): 1822–27. doi:10.1039/C0MB00302F.

Woerman, A. et al. Tau prions from Alzheimer’s disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy patients propagate in cultured cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, E8187-E8196 (2016).

Zhao, W. et al. Amyloid beta oligomers induce impairment of neuronal insulin receptors. The FASEB Journal 22, 246-260 (2007).

Proposed Treatments

de la Monte, S. Intranasal insulin therapy for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration: current state of the art. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 10, 1699-1709 (2013).

Doody, R. et al. Phase 3 Trials of Solanezumab for Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 370, 311-321 (2014).

Doody, R. et al. A Phase 3 Trial of Semagacestat for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 369, 341-350 (2013).

Liu, X. et al. Amyloid Beta-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) Induce Abnormal Expression of Insulin Receptors in Rat Hippocampal Neurons. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 52, 124-130 (2014).

Mahajan, M., Dudhgaonkar, S. & Deshmukh, S. Novel therapies for treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. International Journal of Pharmacological Research 5, 150-157 (2015).

Morris, J. & Burns, J. Insulin: An Emerging Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia?. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 12, 520-527 (2012).

Rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease (Review). The Cochrane Library 2-24 (2015).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *